Categories: Hindu God and Goddess

Surya-The Radiant Sun God of Hinduism

Surya, the revered Sun god, holds a prominent place in Hinduism and transcends cultural boundaries as one of the few deities widely worshipped across different societies. His significance lies not only in his divine nature but also in the unique attribute of being visible to the mortal eye. This distinction elevates Surya Deva to a position of utmost respect and veneration in Hindu religious practices. In this article, we shall delve into various aspects related to Surya Deva, exploring the depth of his influence and the rich symbolism surrounding this celestial entity.


In the ancient realm of Hinduism, Surya Deva emerges as a deity adorned with multiple names such as Aditya, Arka, Ravi, and Prabhakar. His existence can be traced back to the revered Rig Veda, where his luminous presence is first acknowledged. Throughout the unfolding epochs, he continues to find mention in subsequent Vedas and Upanishads, upholding his enduring significance in the sacred texts.

Surya Deva

While Surya Deva enjoys a multitude of worshippers, it is intriguing that few temples are solely dedicated to him. However, his artistry remains etched within the sanctuaries of ancient India, including illustrious sites like the Ellora caves and the majestic Kailasa temple. Scholars recall a time when numerous temples were dedicated to Surya Deva, but a tragic fate befell most of them, as invaders razed them to the ground. Despite this calamity, the devotion towards Surya Deva persisted, albeit in fewer temples erected in his honor.

Notably, Surya Deva’s reverence is not limited to the Vedas and Upanishads alone; his illustrious presence finds a place in various Puranas and epic sagas like the Ramayana and Mahabharata, amplifying the depth of his role in the Hindu pantheon. The journey of Surya Deva traverses through epochs, brimming with tales of veneration and cultural significance, ensuring his timeless adoration in the hearts of devoted souls even to this day.


Surya Deva embodies profound symbolism representing knowledge, power, and clarity in Hinduism. His celestial radiance serves as a metaphor for dispelling darkness and illuminating lives with awareness. Countless hymns dedicated to this benevolent lord beseech him to bestow the light of wisdom and enlightenment upon devotees.

Throughout various cultures, the portrayal of Surya Deva has been diverse, and influences from Greek and other traditions have interwoven with Indian depictions of the Sun god. In most artistic renderings, Surya Deva is depicted riding a grand chariot drawn by seven majestic horses. Beside him stand the goddesses Usha and Pratyusha, wielding arrows to combat the forces of darkness, thus solidifying Surya Deva’s representation as the triumphant vanquisher of shadows.

The lineage of Surya holds great significance, with those born under its auspices known as Suryavanshi, belonging to the solar dynasty, or the Ikshavaku dynasty. A lineage graced by illustrious personalities like Sage Vashistha, Mandhatri, Muchukunda, Ambarisha, Bharata Chakravartin, Bahubali, Harishchandra, Dilipa, Sagara, Raghu, Dasharatha, Lord Rama, and Pasenadi. The heritage of Suryavanshis stands as a testament to their profound connection with the radiant divinity of Surya Deva, enriching the tapestry of Hindu mythology and cultural heritage.

Worship of Surya Deva

Gayatri Mantra

The worship of Surya Deva holds significant historical and cultural importance, dating back to the Vedic era. Revered as one of the most worshipped deities of that time, Surya Deva’s prominence lies in the fact that he could be seen with naked eyes, making him a focal point of Vedic rituals. The revered Gayatri Mantra itself mentions him, further solidifying his divine stature.

Though the worship of Surya Deva waned over time, as other gods gained popularity, he still retains a devoted following in India and Nepal. The worshipers, known as Shauryas, continue to venerate him, and even the Buddhists acknowledge his significance in their texts.

In South India, particularly among the Tamil people, the worship of Surya Deva finds expression during the Pongal festival, a grand event celebrated during the harvest season. This festivity not only commemorates the deity but also serves as a testament to the enduring legacy of Surya Deva’s influence in the region’s culture and traditions.

Chhath Puja

Chhath Puja is another major festival in India, dedicated to worshipping Surya Deva to seek his blessings for the health and wealth of the family. This festival is celebrated widely in Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, and parts of Nepal. Despite changing times, Surya Deva’s worship endures, remaining an integral part of the spiritual fabric of the Indian subcontinent.

Surya Deva and the Nava Grahas

In Hinduism, the Nava Grahas (nine planets of Vedic astrology) hold significant importance, as they are celestial forces believed to influence human life and destiny. Unlike the modern astronomical understanding of planets, the Nava Grahas include the Sun, Moon, Mercury, Mars, Venus, Jupiter, Saturn, Rahu, and Ketu. Rahu and Ketu are considered as shadowy entities associated with the lunar and solar eclipses.

Among the Nava Grahas, the Sun, known as Surya Deva, holds a prominent position. As the chief among these celestial bodies, Surya Deva is revered and considered the father of Saturn (Sani). The Nava Graha puja is a ritual performed to appease these celestial forces and mitigate any negative influences they may cast upon individuals.

Through various texts and rituals in Hinduism, people seek blessings from the Nava Grahas for prosperity, well-being, and protection from malefic influences. The belief in their influence on human life continues to be an integral aspect of Hindu culture and spirituality.

Surya and Yoga

In the practice of Yoga, there is a significant emphasis on Surya, the Sun, and its associated aspects. The solar cycle, lasting approximately 12 years, holds particular significance in this ancient tradition. Aligning oneself with this natural cycle is believed to bring balance and harmony to one’s life, leading to the resolution of various challenges.

Surya Namaskar

A well-known yoga asana, Surya Namaskar, is a reverential salutation to the Sun god. This practice highlights the acknowledgment of the Sun’s vital role in our lives and incorporates elements that harness its beneficial effects. Through this connection with the Sun, practitioners seek to tap into its energy and find a deeper sense of well-being and inner peace.

The integration of Surya in yoga philosophy underscores the holistic approach of this ancient discipline, recognizing the interconnectedness between nature and the human spirit. By aligning with the Sun’s cycles and acknowledging its significance, yoga practitioners aim to cultivate a harmonious and transformative connection with the universe. This reverence for Surya not only enriches their yoga practice but also serves as a reminder of the profound impact the natural world has on our physical, mental, and spiritual well-being.

Temples dedicated to Surya Deva

The worship of Surya Deva, the Sun God, holds significant importance in Hindu mythology. While many temples dedicated to Surya Deva have been lost to time, a few remarkable ones still stand as testaments to the brilliance of Indian art and architecture.

Konark Surya Mandir

Among these, the Konark Surya Mandir in Orissa is a breathtaking sight. Constructed in the 13th century, it resembles a majestic chariot being pulled by seven horses. Adorned with twelve pairs of giant wheels on either side, the temple showcases the ingenuity and creativity of its builders.

Another renowned Sun temple is located in Martand, within the Srinagar valley. Though now in ruins, it once served as a spiritual and religious hub in Kashmir. Many consider it as the earliest Hindu monument to have graced the region.

These surviving temples not only reflect the devotion to Surya Deva but also stand as a poignant reminder of India’s rich cultural heritage and architectural prowess. Despite the loss of many such temples, these remnants continue to captivate and inspire awe among visitors, connecting them to an ancient era of reverence for the Sun God.

Surya Pranam Mantra

Om Japa Kusuma Sankaasham
Kaashya Peyam Mahaa Dyutim;
Tamorim Sarva Papaghnam
Pranathosmi Divakaram.

Translation: I bow to the Surya Deva, whose appearance is like that of a Hibiscus flower, who is effulgent as a saffron-colored cloth, and who dispels all darkness. He is the remover of all sins, and I offer my salutations to him, the illuminator of the day.


Krishna Das is an experienced article writer. He writes about Hinduism in his spare time.

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