Categories: Hindu Scripture

Bhagavad Gita Chapter 2: Sankhya Yoga

The “Bhagavad Gita” is a crucial component of the Indian epic, the “Mahabharata,” containing 700 verses. It depicts a dialogue between Prince Arjuna and Lord Krishna, who serves as his charioteer and spiritual guide. Chapter 2, named Shankya Yoga, explores the deep conversation between Arjuna and Krishna. Termed the Yoga of Knowledge, it reveals timeless teachings on life, duty, and the journey to self-realization. Amid the turmoil of the battlefield, Arjuna seeks counsel, and Krishna imparts profound wisdom, shedding light on the essence of existence. Let’s progressively explore the verses of Chapter 2 of the Bhagavad Gita to gain a comprehensive understanding.

Prince Arjuna and Lord Krishna

Verse 1

sanjaya uvaca:
tam tatha krpayavistamasrupurnakuleksanam;
visidantamidam vakyamuvaca madhusudanah.

Translation: Sanjaya said: Having spoken thus, Arjuna, with eyes full of tears and agitated, in the midst of the two armies, he fell silent.

Verse 2

sribhagavanuvaca:
kutastva kasmalamidam visame samupasthitam;
anaryajustamasvargyamakirtikaramarjuna.

Translation: Lord Krishna said: From where does this dejection come to you at this hour of crisis, Arjuna? It is unbecoming of Aryans, it does not lead to heaven, it is the way of the ignoble, and it brings infamy.

Verse 3

klaibyam ma sma gamah partha naitattvayyupapadyate;
ksudram hrdayadaurbalyam tyaktvottistha parantapa.

Translation: O Partha (Arjuna), yield not to this unmanliness. This does not befit you. Give up such petty weakness of heart and arise, O vanquisher of enemies.

Verse 4

arjuna uvaca:
katham bhismamaham saṅkhye dronam ca madhusudana;
isubhih pratiyotsyami pujarhavarisudana.

Translation: Arjuna said: O Madhusudana (Krishna), how can I fight against Bhishma and Drona with arrows on the battlefield, who are fit to be worshipped?

Verse 5

gurunahatva hi mahanubhavansreyo bhoktum bhaiksyamapiha loke;
hatvarthakamamstu gurunihaiva bhunjiya bhogan rudhira-pradigdhan.

Translation: By killing these great mentors who are worthy of reverence, we shall not attain happiness, let alone the kingdom.

Verse 6

na caitadvidmah kataranno gariyo yadva jayema yadi va no jayeyuh;
yaneva hatva na jijivisamaste‌ vasthitah pramukhe dhartarastrah.

Translation: I do not see how any good can come from killing my own kinsmen in this battle, nor do I desire any victory, O Krishna.

Verse 7

karpanyadosopahatasvabhavah prcchami tvam dharmasammuḍhacetah;
yacchreyah syanniscitam bruhi tanme sisyaste‌ ham sadhi mam tvam prapannam.

Translation: “I inquire about the nature of Dharma, which has been obscured by my own shortcomings. Please instruct me definitively on what is truly beneficial. I am your disciple and have surrendered to you. Please enlighten me.”

Verse 8

na hi prapasyami mamapanudyadyacchokamucchosanamindriyanam;
avapya bhumavasapatnamrddham rajyam suranamapi cadhipatyam.

Translation: O Govinda (Krishna), of what avail to us are a kingdom, happiness, or even life itself when all those for whom we may desire them are now arrayed on this battlefield?

Verse 9

sanjaya uvaca:
evamuktva hrsikesam guḍakesah parantapa;
na yotsya iti govindamuktva tusnim babhuva ha.

Translation: Sanjaya said: Thus, having spoken on the battlefield, Arjuna, having cast aside his bow and arrows, sat down on the seat of the chariot, his mind overwhelmed with sorrow.

Verse 10

tamuvaca hrsikesah prahasanniva bharata;
senayorubhayormadhye visidantamidam vacah.

Translation: Then, in the midst of the two armies, Lord Krishna smilingly spoke the following words to the grief-stricken Arjuna.

Verse 11

sribhagavanuvaca:
asocyananvasocastvam praṅnavadamsca bhasase;
gatasunagatasumsca nanusocanti panḍitah.

Translation: The Supreme Lord said: “You grieve for those who should not be grieved for, and yet you speak wise words. The wise grieve neither for the living nor for the dead.”

Verse 12

na tvevaham jatu nasam na tvam neme janadhipah;
na caiva na bhavisyamah sarve vayamatah param.

Translation: “Never was there a time when I did not exist, nor you, nor all these kings; nor in the future shall any of us cease to be.”

Verse 13

dehino ’smin yatha dehe kaumaram yauvanam jara;
tatha dehantara-praptir dhiras tatra na muhyati.

Translation: “Just as the soul experiences childhood, youth, and old age in this body, similarly, it attains another body after death. The wise are not deluded by this.”

Verse 14

matra-sparsas tu kaunteya
sitosna-sukha-duhkha-dah;
agamapayino ‘nityas
tams titiksasva bharata.

Translation: “O Arjuna, the contact between the senses and the sense objects gives rise to fleeting experiences of heat and cold, pleasure and pain. They come and go; endure them bravely, O descendant of Bharata.”

Verse 15

yam hi na vyathayanty ete
purusam purusarsabha;
sama-duhkha-sukham dhiram
so ‘mrtatvaya kalpate.

Translation: “O best among men, the wise person, who is undisturbed by these changes of happiness and distress and remains steady in both, becomes fit for immortality.”

Verse 16

nasato vidyate bhavo
nabhavo vidyate satah;
ubhayor api drsto ‘ntas
tv anayos tattva-darsibhih.

Translation: “There is no existence for the unreal, and the real never ceases to be. The seers of truth have concluded the same about both.”

Verse 17

avinasi tu tadviddhi yena sarvamidam tatam;
vinasamavyayasyasya na kascitkartumarhati.

Translation: “Know that which pervades the entire body is indestructible. No one is able to destroy the imperishable soul.”

Verse 18

antavanta ime deha
nityasyoktah saririnah;
anasino ‘prameyasya
tasmad yudhyasva bharata.

Translation: “These bodies of the eternal, indestructible, and immeasurable soul are said to be perishable. Therefore, fight, O Arjuna.”

Verse 19

ya enam vetti hantaram yascainam manyate hatam;
ubhau tau na vijanito nayam hanti na hanyate.

Translation: “One who thinks the soul is a slayer and the one who thinks it is slain, both are ignorant. The soul neither slays nor is slain.”

Verse 20

na jayate mriyate va kadacinnayam bhutva bhavita va na bhuyah;
ajo nityah sasvato ‘yam purano na hanyate hanyamane sarire.

Translation: “The soul is never born and never dies; it has not come into being, does not come into being, and will not come into being. It is unborn, eternal, ever-existing, and primeval. The soul is not destroyed when the body is destroyed.”

Verse 21

vedavinasinam nityam ya enamajamavyayam;
atham sa purusah partha kam ghatayati hanti kam.

Translation: “O Arjuna, the soul is eternal, unchanging, unborn, and imperishable. It is not destroyed when the body is destroyed. Therefore, slay or fight, whichever way you desire.”

Verse 22

vasamsi jirnani yatha vihaya navani grhnati naro‌உparani;
tatha sarirani vihaya jirnanyanyani samyati navani dehi.

Translation: “Just as a person sheds worn-out garments and puts on new ones, the soul similarly discards the old body and acquires a new one.”

Verse 23

nainam chindanti sastrani nainam dahati pavakah;
na cainam kledayantyapo na sosayati marutah.

Translation: “The soul cannot be cut by weapons, burned by fire, moistened by water, or dried by the wind. It is eternal, all-pervading, unchanging, and immovable.”

Verse 24

acchedyo‌ ‘yamadahyo‌ ‘yamakledyo‌ ‘sosya eva ca;
nityah sarvagatah sthanuracalo‌ ‘yam sanatanah.

Translation: “The soul is unmanifest, inconceivable, immutable, and eternal. Therefore, knowing this, you should not grieve for the physical body.”

Verse 25

avyakto‌உyamacintyo‌உyamavikaryo‌உyamucyate;
tasmadevam viditvainam nanusocitumarhasi.

Translation: “Even if you believe that the soul is continually born and dies, O mighty-armed Arjuna, you should not grieve for it.”

Verse 26

atha cainam nityajatam nityam va manyase mrtam;
tathapi tvam mahabaho naivam socitumarhasi.

Translation: “For certain is death for the born, and certain is birth for the dead. Therefore, over the inevitable, you should not grieve.”

Verse 27

jatasya hi dhruvo mrtyurdhruvam janma mrtasya ca;
tasmadapariharye‌ ‘rthe na tvam socitumarhasi.

Translation: “All beings are unmanifest before birth, manifest in life, and unmanifest again upon death. What is there to grieve about?”

Verse 28

avyaktadini bhutani vyaktamadhyani bharata;
avyaktanidhananyeva tatra ka paridevana.

Translation: “Some perceive the soul as a wonder, and others speak of it as a wonder. Even after hearing about it, no one truly understands it.”

Verse 29

ascaryavatpasyati kascidenamascaryavadvadati tathaiva canyah;
ascaryavaccainamanyah srnoti srutvapyenam veda na caiva kascit.

Translation: “The soul, which resides in the body, is eternal and indestructible, O Bharata. Therefore, you should not grieve for any living being.”

Verse 30

dehi nityamavadhyo‌ ‘yam dehe sarvasya bharata;
tasmatsarvani bhutani na tvam socitumarhasi.

Translation: “In this context, all beings are unmanifest before birth and manifest in life. Knowing this, you should not grieve over the inevitable.”

Verse 31

svadharmamapi caveksya na vikampitumarhasi;
dharmyaddhi yuddhacchreyo‌ ‘nyatksatriyasya na vidyate.

Translation: “Moreover, considering your own duty, you should not waver, for a warrior should not falter in his duty.”

Verse 32

yadrcchaya copapannam svargadvaramapavrtam;
sukhinah ksatriyah partha labhante yuddhamidrsam.

Translation: “O Partha, happy are the Kshatriyas to whom such a fight comes unsought, opening for them the doors of the heavenly planets.”

Verse 33

atha cettvamimam dharmyam saṅgramam na karisyasi;
tatah svadharmam kirtim ca hitva papamavapsyasi.

Translation: “If, however, you do not perform your duty of fighting in this battle, then you will certainly incur sins for neglecting your duties and thus lose your reputation as a warrior.”

Verse 34

akirtim capi bhutani kathayisyanti te‌ ‘vyayam;
sambhavitasya cakirtirmaranadatiricyate.

Translation: “People will always speak of your infamy, and for one who has been honored, dishonor is worse than death.”

Verse 35

bhayadranaduparatam mamsyante tvam maharathah;
yesam ca tvam bahumato bhutva yasyasi laghavam.

Translation:“Your enemies will describe you in many unkind words and scorn your ability. What could be more painful for you than that?”

Verse 36

avacyavadamsca bahunvadisyanti tavahitah;
nindantastava samarthyam tato duhkhataram nu kim.

Translation: “Many will criticize you, saying unfavorable things;
But if they criticize your abilities, then what could be more painful?”

Verse 37

hato va prapsyasi svargam jitva va bhoksyase mahim;
tasmaduttistha kaunteya yuddhaya krtaniscayah.

Translation: “If you are killed, you will attain heaven; if you win, you will enjoy the kingdom. Therefore, arise, O Arjuna, with determination for battle.”

Verse 38

sukhaduhkhe same krtva labhalabhau jayajayau;
tato yuddhaya yujyasva naivam papamavapsyasi.

Translation: “Treating pleasure and pain, gain and loss, victory and defeat alike, engage in battle and thus you will not incur sin.”

Verse 39

esa te‌ ‘bhihita saṅkhye buddhiryoge tvimam srnu;
buddhya yukto yaya partha karmabandham prahasyasi.

Translation: “Thus, I have explained to you the knowledge that pertains to Sankhya (knowledge of the self) and the knowledge that pertains to Yoga (the path of self-realization). When you are established in this knowledge, O Partha (Arjuna), you will break free from the bonds of karma.”

Verse 40

nehabhikramanaso‌ ‘sti pratyavayo na vidyate;
svalpamapyasya dharmasya trayate mahato bhayat.

Translation: “In this (path of) yoga, there is no loss of effort, nor is there any harm. Even a little of this dharma (righteous practice) protects one from great fear.”

Verse 41

vyavasayatmika buddhirekeha kurunandana;
bahusakha hyanantasca buddhayo‌ ‘vyavasayinam.

Translation: “O Arjuna, the resolute determination of one-pointed intelligence is better; many-branched and endless are the thoughts of the irresolute.”

Verse 42

yamimam puspitam vacam pravadantyavipascitah;
vedavadaratah partha nanyadastiti vadinah.

Translation: “The wise, who are not attached to the flowery words of the Vedas and who understand that the ultimate truth is different from the literal meaning, describe this wisdom.”

Verse 43

kamatmanah svargapara janmakarmaphalapradam;
kriyavisesabahulam bhogaisvaryagatim prati.

Translation: “They engage in various elaborate rituals, desiring sense pleasures and material gains, and they go to heaven. Such people obtain limited pleasures and success in temporary fruits of actions in their next birth.”

Verse 44

bhogaisvaryaprasaktanam tayapahrtacetasam;
vyavasayatmika buddhih samadhau na vidhiyate.

Translation: “For those whose minds are attached to the pleasures of sense objects and power, who lack resolute determination, and whose intellects are unsteady, there is no possibility of steady concentration in meditation.”

Verse 45

traigunyavisaya veda nistraigunyo bhavarjuna;
nirdvandvo nityasattvastho niryogaksema atmavan.

Translation: “O Arjuna, transcend the three modes of material nature (goodness, passion, ignorance); be free from dualities and ever situated in the mode of goodness; free from attachment and aversion, and balanced in success and failure; such a person is ready for self-realization.”

Verse 46

yavanartha udapane sarvatah samplutodake;
tavansarvesu vedesu brahmanasya vijanatah.

Translation: “As a person puts on new garments, giving up old ones, the soul similarly accepts new material bodies, giving up the old and useless ones.”

Verse 47

karmanyevadhikaraste ma phalesu kadacana;
ma karmaphalaheturbhurma te sango‌ ‘stvakarmani.

Translation: “You have a right to perform your prescribed duties, but you are not entitled to the fruits of your actions. Never consider yourself to be the cause of the results of your activities, nor be attached to inaction.”

Verse 48

yogasthah kuru karmani saṅgam tyaktva dhananjaya;
siddhyasiddhyoh samo bhutva samatvam yoga ucyate.

Translation: “Perform your duty equipoised, O Arjuna, abandoning all attachment to success or failure. Such equanimity is called yoga.”

Verse 49

durena hyavaram karma buddhiyogaddhananjaya;
buddhau saranamanviccha krpanah phalahetavah.

Translation: “O Dhananjaya (Arjuna), far better is knowledge (buddhi yoga) than mere practice (karma). Far better is meditation (buddhi) than knowledge. And far better than meditation is renunciation of the fruits of actions, for by such renunciation one can attain peace of mind.”

Verse 50

buddhiyukto jahatiha ubhe sukrtaduskrte;
tasmadyogaya yujyasva yogah karmasu kausalam.

Translation: “One who is endowed with wisdom casts aside here both good and evil deeds. Therefore, engage in the Yoga of wisdom. Skill in action is Yoga.”

Verse 51

karmajam buddhiyukta hi phalam tyaktva manisinah;
janmabandhavinirmuktah padam gacchantyanamayam.

Translation: “Those who are wise, engaged in the wisdom of action, give up the results born of actions, and are free from birth by birth; they reach the state beyond all evil.”

Verse 52

yada te mohakalilam buddhirvyatitarisyati;
tada gantasi nirvedam srotavyasya srutasya ca.

Translation: “When your intellect, which is bewildered by delusion, crosses over the mire of delusion, then you will achieve indifference to what has been heard and what is to be heard.”

Verse 53

srutivipratipanna te yada sthasyati niscala;
samadhavacala buddhistada yogamavapsyasi.

Translation: “When your intellect is no longer disturbed by the hear-say, and remains steady and undisturbed even in the midst of diverse experiences, then you will have attained the state of yoga.”

Verse 54

arjuna uvaca:
sthitaprannasya ka bhasa samadhisthasya kesava;
sthitadhih kim prabhaseta kimasita vrajeta kim.

Translation: “Arjuna said: O Kesava (Krishna), what are the symptoms of one whose consciousness is thus merged in transcendence? How does one who is self-situated speak, and what is his language? How does he sit, and how does he walk?”

Verse 55

sribhagavanuvaca:
prajahati yada kamansarvanpartha manogatan;
atmanyevatmana tustah sthitapraṅnastadocyate;

Translation: “The Supreme Lord said: O Partha, when one completely gives up all desires of the mind and becomes satisfied in the self alone, by the self, then they are said to be one whose wisdom is steady.”

Verse 56

duhkhesvanudvignamanah sukhesu vigatasprhah;
vitaragabhayakrodhah sthitadhirmunirucyate.

Translation: “One whose mind remains undisturbed amidst misery, who does not crave for pleasure, and who is free from attachment, fear, and anger, such a sage is called a person of steady wisdom.”

Verse 57

yah sarvatranabhisnehastattatprapya subhasubham;
nabhinandati na dvesti tasya pranna pratisthita.

Translation: “One who is not attached to external objects, who neither rejoices nor grieves when obtaining or losing things, and who remains equipoised in both favorable and unfavorable circumstances, such a person has achieved a steady mind.”

Verse 58

yada samharate cayam kurmo‌ ‘nganiva sarvasah;
indriyanindriyarthebhyastasya pranna pratisthita.

Translation: “When one withdraws their senses from the sense objects, just as a tortoise withdraws its limbs into its shell, their wisdom remains steady.”

Verse 59

visaya vinivartante niraharasya dehinah;
rasavarjam raso‌ ‘pyasya param drstva nivartate.

Translation: “The embodied soul may be restricted from sense enjoyment, though the taste for sense objects remains. But, ceasing such engagements by experiencing a higher taste, they become fixed in consciousness.”

Verse 60

yatato hyapi kaunteya purusasya vipascitah;
indriyani pramathini haranti prasabham manah.

Translation: “For even a wise person strives to control the senses, as they forcibly carry away the mind, which is extremely restless and difficult to restrain.”

Verse 61

tani sarvani samyamya yukta asita matparah;
vase hi yasyendriyani tasya pranna pratisthita.

Translation: “Having controlled them all, one should sit in devotion, with me as the supreme goal. For one whose senses are subdued, the mind is fixed in steady wisdom.”

Verse 62

dhyayato visayanpumsah sangastesupajayate;
sangatsanjayate kamah kamatkrodho‌ ‘bhijayate.

Translation: “While contemplating the objects of the senses, a person develops attachment; from attachment, desire is born; from desire, anger arises.”

Verse 63

krodhadbhavati sammohah sammohatsmrtivibhramah;
smrtibhramsadbuddhinaso buddhinasatpranasyati.

Translation: “From anger comes delusion; from delusion, the loss of memory; from the loss of memory, the destruction of intellect; from the destruction of intellect, one perishes.”

Verse 64

ragadvesavimuktaistu visayanindriyaiscaran;
atmavasyairvidheyatma prasadamadhigacchati.

Translation: “A person who is free from attachment and aversion, and who controls the senses with determination, achieves tranquility of mind. Such a self-controlled person ultimately attains the grace of the Supreme.”

Verse 65

prasade sarvaduhkhanam hanirasyopajayate;
prasannacetaso hyasu buddhih paryavatisthate.

Translation: “In the serene clarity of one who is not disturbed by suffering, there arises a cessation of all sorrows. For the intellect of such a person is firmly established in unwavering wisdom.”

Verse 66

nasti buddhirayuktasya na cayuktasya bhavana;
na cabhavayatah santirasantasya kutah sukham.

Translation: “Treating pleasure and pain, gain and loss, victory and defeat alike, engage in battle and thus you will not incur sin.”

Verse 67

indriyanam hi caratam yanmano‌ ‘nuvidhiyate;
tadasya harati pranynam vayurnavamivambhasi.

Translation: “Just as a strong wind sweeps a boat off its charted course on the water, even one of the senses on which the mind focuses can lead astray a person’s intelligence.”

Verse 68

tasmadyasya mahabaho nigrhitani sarvasah;
indriyanindriyarthebhyastasya pranna pratisthita.

Translation: “Therefore, O mighty-armed Arjuna, one whose senses are restrained from their objects is certainly established in wisdom.”

Verse 69

ya nisa sarvabhutanam tasyam jagarti samyami;
yasyam jagrati bhutani sa nisa pasyato muneh.

Translation: “That which is night to all beings is the time of awakening for the self-controlled; and the time of awakening for all beings is night for the introspective sage.”

Verse 70

apuryamanamacalapratistham samudramapah pravisanti yadvat;
tadvatkama yam pravisanti sarve sa santimapnoti na kamakami.

Translation: “Just as the waters of different rivers enter the ocean, which, though full, remains undisturbed and unmoved, likewise, a person who is not disturbed by the incessant flow of desires can alone achieve peace, and not the person who strives to satisfy such desires.”

Verse 71

vihaya kamanyah sarvanpumamscarati nihsprhah;
nirmamo nirahaṅkarah sa santimadhigacchati.

Translation: “Giving up all desires, a person moves about without longing, without a sense of ownership, and without egoism. Such a person attains peace.”

Verse 72

esa brahmi sthitih partha nainam prapya vimuhyati;
sthitvasyamantakale‌ ‘pi brahmanirvanamrcchati.

Translation: “O Partha, this is the state of being established in Brahman; having attained it, one is not deluded. Being situated in this state even at the time of death, one attains final liberation in Brahman.”

Admin

Krishna Das is an experienced article writer. He writes about Hinduism in his spare time.

Recent Posts

Apah Suktam:The Vedic Hymn to the Water Deity

"Ap" is the Vedic Sanskrit word for "water." The Apah Suktam is a hymn from…

1 hour ago

Yogi: Practitioners of Yoga and Spiritual Traditions

A yogi is a practitioner of yoga, often engaged in sannyasa (renunciation) and meditation across…

2 days ago

Panchanana: The Five-faced Form of Shiva

Lord Shiva, one of Hinduism's most revered deities, presents a profound and multifaceted figure that…

3 days ago

Veera Lakshmi: A Symbol of Bravery and Strength

Veera Lakshmi, also known as Dhairya Lakshmi, is a powerful manifestation of Goddess Lakshmi, embodying…

5 days ago

Nachiketa: The Seeker of Eternal Truth

Nachiketa, the son of the sage Vajashravas, is a central figure in Hindu mythology. He…

6 days ago

Batuka Bhairava: Origin and Significance

Batuka Bhairava is a revered deity in Hinduism, especially in the Shaiva and Shakta traditions.…

1 week ago

This website uses cookies.