Categories: Hindu God and Goddess

12 Adityas: Guardians of Cosmic Order

In Hindu mythology, the concept of the Adityas plays a significant role in upholding the principles of Dharma and maintaining the cosmic order. These twelve celestial beings are associated with various aspects of life and are considered the sons of Aditi. While their names and roles may vary in different Puranas, we will explore their identities as per the Satapatha Brahmana, a text with significant authority.

12 Adityas

One: Yama-Upholder of Dharma

Lord Yama

Yama, a prominent Aditya, is responsible for ensuring the adherence to Dharma in both mortal and immortal worlds. He is often regarded as the son of the sun god (Surya) and has siblings like Yamuna and Shani. Some stories even link him to Ashwini Kumar, the divine doctors, highlighting his role in the cosmic order.

Two: Aryaman-Friend and Protector

Aryaman is the friend deity among the 12 Adityas. He safeguards the customs and unions of various tribes and their people, akin to a loyal friend. Aryaman’s influence extends to nurturing individual qualities and supporting noble deeds.

Three: Indra-King of Devas


Indra, the king of the Devas, is a prominent figure in the Adityas. He is the protector of individual Karmas in various professions, symbolizing the control over human fertility and agricultural prosperity. Indra is also associated with thunder, rain, and water flows.

Four: Ravi/Pushan-The Poet God

Ravi or Pushan is celebrated as the poet god among the Adityas. He safeguards marriages, journeys, roads, and the well-being of cattle. Additionally, he guides souls and preserves the cosmic rhythm, preventing exploitation among humans.

Five: Varuna-Protector of Natural Laws

Lord Varuna

Varuna‘s role among the 12 Adityas is to protect Rta (Natural Laws), the seas, and Satya (Cosmic Truth). He fosters self-realization in Yoga and shares a profound connection with Vishnu. Varuna’s character is closely linked with Mitra, the guardian of treaties, and he is often associated with a crocodile.

Six: Bhaga-The God of Fortune

Bhaga is the god of fortune, responsible for rewarding good actions. He bestows blessings on both mortals and immortals, making him the deity of wealth and good fortune.

Seven: Savitr-The Agent God of Intelligence

Savitr is a vital deity in Hinduism, overseeing intelligence and wisdom. He is a patron deity, and the revered Gayatri Mantra is associated with him, emphasizing his importance in seeking knowledge and enlightenment.

Eight: Surya-The God of Sight and Knowledge

Surya Deva

Surya, commonly known as the Sun God, represents sight, perception, and knowledge. He is considered the creator of Prakriti, or individual nature, and holds a central role in the Adityas.

Nine: Ansha-The God of Parts

Ansha is often referred to as the god of the parts, particularly the parts of the sun or its rays. Hinduism identifies seven principal sun rays, but Ansha is associated with fifteen, which also represent the colors of light in the Chakras. These rays symbolize different aspects of consciousness and travel through Prana in yoga practice.

Eleven: Dhatr-The God of Health

Dhatr, among the 12 Adityas, is the deity of health. He grants good health to those who worship him and acts as the protector of domestic tranquility, promoting physical and mental well-being.

Twelve: Daksha-The Major Aditya


Daksha, a major Aditya, holds a prominent role as a Prajapati or ruler in his various births. He is the guardian of skilled actions and individual skills, ensuring that abilities and talents are cultivated and preserved.


The 12 Adityas are a diverse group of celestial beings, each with a unique role in maintaining the cosmic order and upholding the principles of Dharma. Their significance in Hindu mythology showcases the intricate balance of various aspects of life and spirituality, making them essential figures in the rich tapestry of Hindu beliefs.


Krishna Das is an experienced article writer. He writes about Hinduism in his spare time.

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