Categories: Hindu God and Goddess

Ratri: The Vedic Goddess of Night

Ratri, also known as Nisha, is a significant deity in Hinduism, representing the personification of night. Her worship dates back to the ancient Vedic period, and she is prominently featured in key Hindu scriptures, particularly the Rigveda and Atharvaveda. As the embodiment of the night, Ratri is revered for her role in overseeing the darkness and ensuring the safety and restfulness of all living beings during this time.

Goddess Ratri

Mythological Background

Ratri is often described as a beautiful maiden cloaked in a star-studded black robe, symbolizing her dominion over the night sky. She is the sister of Ushas, the personification of dawn, which highlights the cyclical nature of time and the universe. This relationship between Ratri and Ushas underscores the balance and transition between night and day.

Her family includes other significant deities such as Chandra (the moon), Nidra (sleep), and Ushas. Her consort is Surya, the sun god, further integrating her role into the cosmic cycle of day and night. Together, Ratri and her family represent the various aspects of the daily cycle, each playing a vital role in maintaining cosmic order.

Hymns and Literary References

Ratri is honored in several hymns within Hindu scriptures. The Rigveda, one of the oldest known texts, contains a specific hymn dedicated to her, illustrating her importance in early Vedic rituals and beliefs. Additionally, the Atharvaveda, another crucial Vedic text, includes five hymns that praise Ratri.

In the Rigveda, Ratri is associated with other powerful deities such as Indra, the king of gods; Rta, the principle of cosmic order; and Satya, the concept of truth. These associations emphasize her integral role in the universe’s functioning. In the Atharvaveda, she is linked with Surya, highlighting her connection to the daily cycle and the interplay between night and day.

The Brahmanas and Sutra literature, which are later Vedic texts, frequently mention Ratri, further establishing her significance in Vedic tradition and ritual practices. These texts provide additional context and details about her role and attributes.

Depictions and Symbolism

Ratri is often envisioned as a stunning maiden draped in a black coat adorned with stars, symbolizing her rule over the night and the celestial realm. This imagery portrays her as a serene and majestic figure, illuminating the darkness with her presence. As the ‘Goddess of Night’, ‘Guardian of Night’, and ‘Hindu Night-time Goddess’, Ratri’s role is to oversee the nighttime, ensuring tranquility and protection for all creatures.

Her symbolic presence represents the natural rhythm and cycles of the cosmos, with night following day in a continuous and harmonious pattern. This cyclical nature is crucial to understanding her place in the Vedic worldview.

Divine Attributes

Ratri possesses several divine attributes commonly found among Hindu deities. She is considered immortal, with mystical powers that ensure her dominion over the night. Her attributes include resistance to injury and superhuman strength, marking her as a powerful and enduring presence.

As a preserver of law and order, Ratri is responsible for the natural phenomena of the night, such as the deposition of morning dew. Her role in maintaining cosmic balance underscores her importance in the Vedic tradition. She is also seen as a strengthener of vital power, contributing to the well-being and vitality of all beings.

Worship and Significance

Devotees worship Ratri for various reasons, including safety, comfort, and protection during the night. Her presence is believed to light up the darkness, offering a sense of security and tranquility. Ratri’s role as a ‘night nurse’ goddess highlights her nurturing and protective nature, ensuring restful sleep and peace for all creatures.

Her worship reflects the ancient Vedic understanding of the cosmos and the intricate patterns of time. Ratri’s attributes of longevity, mystical powers, and superhuman strength make her a central figure in Vedic rituals and prayers. Devotees seek her blessings for a peaceful night and protection from the unknown dangers that the darkness might bring.

Dual Aspects

While Ratri is largely seen as a benevolent and nurturing figure, there is a bleaker aspect to her character. She is sometimes associated with bringing bareness and gloom, reflecting the darker, more mysterious aspects of the night. This duality underscores the complex nature of the night, which can be both a time of rest and a period of uncertainty and fear.

Despite this, Ratri’s primary role remains that of a nurturing and protective deity. Her presence is a source of comfort and security, lighting up the darkness and ensuring the well-being of all creatures.


Ratri is a multifaceted goddess whose significance in Hindu mythology cannot be overstated. As the personification of night, she plays a crucial role in maintaining the balance between light and darkness. Her worship reflects the ancient Vedic understanding of the cosmos and the intricate patterns of time. Whether invoked for protection, comfort, or her divine powers, Ratri remains a central figure in the pantheon of Hindu deities. Her presence in the Vedic texts and later literature highlights her enduring importance and the reverence with which she is regarded by her devotees.


Krishna Das is an experienced article writer. He writes about Hinduism in his spare time.

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