Categories: Hindu God and Goddess

Ganga-The Divine River of Purification

Ganga, the personification of the river Ganges, holds immense significance in Hindu mythology and culture. Worshiped as the goddess of purification and forgiveness, Ganga is revered as a mother to humanity. This essay explores the origins, appearance, legends, and festivals associated with Goddess Ganga, highlighting her role as a sacred river and symbol of spiritual cleansing.

Ganga in Vedic Scriptures

In the ancient Rigveda, Ganga is mentioned as one of the holiest rivers. Her presence is described in the Nadistuti, listing rivers from east to west. Though the references are not explicit, the mention of Ganga and the Ganges river dolphin suggests her connection to the river. Additionally, verses highlight Ganga’s association with purity, auspiciousness, and as a benefactor to all living beings.

Appearance of Goddess Ganga

Goddess Ganga is depicted as a fair-complexioned woman, often shown riding a crocodile-like creature called the makara. She wears a white crown, holds a water lily in her right hand, and a flute in her left. In some representations, she has four arms, carrying a water pot, a lily, a rosary, and displaying a protective gesture. Various iconographic depictions showcase Ganga with a kalasha (water pot), padma (lotus), shankha (conch shell), chakra (discus), and in a compassionate pose, blessing her devotees.

Birth of Ganga

According to different texts, Ganga’s origins vary. In the Ramayana, she is described as the daughter of Himavat, the personification of the Himalayas, and the sister of the Goddess Parvati. Another account states that Ganga emerged from the foot of Lord Vishnu, which pierced a hole in the universe, leading to her descent as a river. Ganga’s birth narratives are often intertwined with the divine and serve as explanations for her divine nature and connection to other deities.

Ganga’s Transformation into a River

A legend in the Bhagavata Purana and Srimad Devi Bhagavatam (Devi Bhagavata Purana) describes a dispute between Ganga and Goddess Saraswati over Vishnu’s affection. The ensuing curses transformed Ganga into a river and Saraswati into a river as well. Ganga’s waters were believed to cleanse sinners, highlighting her role as a purifying force. These narratives reflect the complex relationships and interplay between deities in Hindu mythology.

Ganga’s Descent upon the Earth

The story of Ganga’s descent to earth is narrated in various texts such as the Valmiki Ramayana, Mahabharata, and Puranas. Bhagiratha, a descendant of King Sagara, undertook rigorous penance to bring Ganga to earth to liberate the souls of his ancestors. With the help of Lord Brahma and Lord Shiva, Ganga descended, and Shiva held her in his hair to prevent the force of her descent from causing destruction. Ganga’s arrival on earth is regarded as a significant event, symbolizing the divine intervention and the role of rivers in purifying humanity.

Ganga’s Marriage and Children

In the Mahabharata, Ganga is the wife of King Shantanu and the mother of the eight Vasus, including the warrior Bhishma. Their union was marked by a condition that Shantanu must not question her actions. Ganga drowned her first seven sons upon birth, but when she was about to drown the eighth, Bhishma, Shantanu intervened and stopped her. This incident reveals the complex nature of Ganga’s character and her role in fulfilling divine prophecies.

Significance of Ganga

Ganga is revered as a purifying force, capable of washing away sins and bestowing Moksha (spiritual liberation). Devotees immerse the ashes of their departed loved ones in the Ganges, believing that it facilitates their journey towards moksha, the ultimate liberation from the cycle of birth and death. The Ganga Mata, as she is affectionately called, is regarded as a forgiving and compassionate mother who cleanses and nurtures all who come to her.

Festivals and Worship

Various festivals and rituals are dedicated to the worship of Ganga. Ganga Dussehra, Ganga Saptami, and Kartik Purnima are some of the prominent festivals celebrated in honor of Ganga. Devotees gather at riverbanks to take holy dips, offer prayers, and perform rituals to seek blessings and cleanse their souls. Ganga aarti is an awe-inspiring evening ritual in Varanasi that is absolutely unmissable. The aarti, a devotional ceremony dedicated to the holy River Ganga, occurs each day as the sun sets. A group of priests gracefully perform this sacred ceremony on the ghats.


Krishna Das is an experienced article writer. He writes about Hinduism in his spare time.

Recent Posts

Apah Suktam:The Vedic Hymn to the Water Deity

"Ap" is the Vedic Sanskrit word for "water." The Apah Suktam is a hymn from…

6 hours ago

Yogi: Practitioners of Yoga and Spiritual Traditions

A yogi is a practitioner of yoga, often engaged in sannyasa (renunciation) and meditation across…

2 days ago

Panchanana: The Five-faced Form of Shiva

Lord Shiva, one of Hinduism's most revered deities, presents a profound and multifaceted figure that…

3 days ago

Veera Lakshmi: A Symbol of Bravery and Strength

Veera Lakshmi, also known as Dhairya Lakshmi, is a powerful manifestation of Goddess Lakshmi, embodying…

5 days ago

Nachiketa: The Seeker of Eternal Truth

Nachiketa, the son of the sage Vajashravas, is a central figure in Hindu mythology. He…

6 days ago

Batuka Bhairava: Origin and Significance

Batuka Bhairava is a revered deity in Hinduism, especially in the Shaiva and Shakta traditions.…

1 week ago

This website uses cookies.