Categories: Hindu God and Goddess

Sugata Buddha: Ninth Avatar of Lord Vishnu

Ancient texts revere Sugata Buddha as Vishnu‘s ninth avatar, but Indian mythology differentiates Gautama Buddha from being Hari (Vishnu) incarnate, sparking debate. Some versions propose Balarama, Krishna‘s brother, as the ninth avatar, deepening uncertainty in the Dashavatara. This discrepancy raises questions about whether Lord Buddha or Balarama should be acknowledged as Vishnu’s ninth incarnation, amplifying the complexity surrounding their identities in Hindu mythology.


A compelling narrative suggests Sugata Buddha as the true ninth avatar of Vishnu, distinct from Gautama Buddha. This interpretation aligns Sugata Buddha more closely with traditional Hindu scriptures, offering clarity amidst differing views. It enriches understanding of Vishnu’s incarnations, emphasizing Sugata Buddha’s divine role and distinguishing him from Gautama Buddha in the pantheon of avatars.

Distinguishing Sugata Buddha and Gautama Buddha

In the rich tapestry of Indian mythology, particularly within the framework of Sanatan Dharma, there are references to two distinct Buddhas: Sugata Buddha and Gautam Buddha.

Sugata Buddha

Sugata Buddha is recognized as the ninth avatar of Lord Vishnu, the deity responsible for the sustenance of the earth and universe. According to these traditions, Lord Vishnu incarnated as Sugata Buddha to fulfill specific divine purposes. Sugata Buddha’s birthplace is identified as Bodh Gaya or Kikata. He was born to a mother named Anjana, further differentiating him from Gautama Buddha. The name “Sugata” itself conveys a sense of a well-gone or well-departed being, indicative of a profound spiritual journey and enlightenment.

Gautama Buddha

On the other hand, Gautama Buddha, the founder of Buddhism, is another prominent figure often mentioned in these narratives. He was born in Lumbini, which is located in present-day Nepal. His mother was Maya, also known as Queen Maya or Maya Devi. Gautama Buddha’s life is well-documented in historical and religious texts, describing his journey from Prince Siddhartha to achieving enlightenment under the Bodhi tree in Bodh Gaya, India.

While both are known as Buddhas, their identities and roles are distinct. Sugata Buddha, an avatar of Vishnu, is integral to Hindu mythology and represents divine intervention. In contrast, Gautama Buddha is a historical figure whose life and teachings are central to Buddhism. Understanding these differences highlights the rich diversity in spiritual and religious traditions within Indian mythology.

The Birth of Sugata Buddha to Defeat Tripurasura

According to the Shiva Purana, there came a time when Lord Vishnu had to incarnate as Buddha, known as Sugata Buddha, to assist Lord Shiva in a crucial mission. This incarnation was necessary to eliminate a powerful trio of demons called Tripurasura. These demons had become invincible due to the boons granted to them by Lord Shiva and Lord Brahma.

Tripurasura, composed of three mighty demons, were causing widespread destruction and chaos throughout the universe. With their newly acquired powers, they established three formidable cities known as Tripura. These cities were made of precious metals: one was silver, another gold, and the third iron. From these strongholds, they dominated not just the Earth, but also the realms of Heaven and Patala (the netherworld).

The havoc wreaked by Tripurasura was unprecedented, as they were undefeated by any being in all the three worlds. The devas (gods) and humans alike were powerless against them. As their tyranny grew, it became clear that the balance of the universe was at stake. To preserve life on Earth and ensure the continuity of creation, the destruction of Tripurasura was imperative.

Recognizing the gravity of the situation, Lord Vishnu decided to take the form of Sugata Buddha, his ninth avatar. This incarnation was specifically aimed at supporting Lord Shiva in the monumental task of eradicating Tripurasura. The birth of Sugata Buddha thus marked a pivotal moment in the cosmic battle against evil, highlighting the divine intervention required to restore peace and order in the universe.

The Tale of Tripurasura

Tripurasura refers to three powerful Asura brothers: Tarakaksha, Vidyunmali, and Kamalaksha, the sons of the demon Tarakasura. These brothers are prominent figures in Hindu mythology due to their significant confrontations with the gods. The story begins with Indra, the king of the heavens, who became excessively proud because of his immense power, vast wealth, and high status. His arrogance led him to insult Rishi Brihaspati, his spiritual guide, and the sacred river goddess Ganga. In response, Rishi Brihaspati cursed Indra, causing him to lose his power, status, and wealth to the Asuras. This curse left Indra and the gods vulnerable, forcing them to abandon their celestial abode.

Tarakasura, aware of the situation, seized the opportunity presented by the gods’ weakened state. He commanded his sons, Tarakaksha, Vidyunmali, and Kamalaksha, to attack and conquer the heavenly realm. United in their mission, the three brothers launched an assault on heaven, leading to significant battles and divine interventions in Hindu mythology. Their story underscores themes of pride, retribution, and the eternal struggle between good and evil in the mythological narrative.

A Great Battle

A monumental battle erupted between the mighty army of Tarakasura and the celestial Devas. Faced with the prospect of death, Indra, the King of Heaven, fled from the battlefield, abandoning his army. The Devas, left to fend for themselves, sought refuge with Lord Shiva, who advised them to take shelter under Rishi Dadhichi, a devout follower of Shiva. Safely under Dadhichi’s protection, the Devas found reprieve from their dire situation.

Shiva, displeased with Indra’s cowardice, decided to strip him of his status and power as the King of Heaven. Shiva’s anger was so intense that he even contemplated ending Indra’s life. However, Lord Vishnu and Lord Brahma intervened, pleading for Indra’s life, and Shiva eventually relented. This act of mercy, however, did not restore Indra’s lost honor or power.

Meanwhile, Tarakasura turned his ambitions toward Earth, coercing its inhabitants to perform Yajna in his and his sons’ names. These rituals, traditionally meant for the Devas, now honored the Asuras, gradually imbuing them with a more positive nature. Tarakasura’s sons, the Tripurasura, were notably affected by this change. When ordered to kill a Deva, they hesitated and refused, disturbed by their father’s malevolence. Seeking a higher purpose, they performed severe tapasya dedicated to Lord Shiva, ultimately receiving immense power from him.

The Tale of Tripura

Tarakasura, a powerful Asura, was aware that Shiva had blessed his sons with a boon, ensuring their safety under his divine protection. Seeking to extend his dominion and challenge the gods, Tarakasura devised a plan to establish a formidable realm called Tripura. To achieve this, he urged his sons to undertake severe penance to please Brahma, the creator god. Driven by their father’s ambition and determination, the sons of Tarakasura engaged in intense and rigorous tapas, or spiritual austerities, to gain the favor of Brahma.

Their unwavering devotion and relentless penance impressed Brahma greatly. As a reward for their efforts, Brahma granted the brothers extraordinary boons, bestowing upon them three magnificent planets made of iron, silver, and gold. These celestial fortresses, collectively known as Tripura, became a symbol of their immense power and influence. The sudden rise of the Asuras, fortified by their new realms, incensed the Devas, the celestial beings, who felt threatened by the newfound strength and dominance of their age-old adversaries. The establishment of Tripura marked a significant shift in the cosmic balance, setting the stage for an epic conflict between the forces of good and evil.

The Battle Between Shiva and Tripurasura

In ancient times, when the Devas were troubled by the powerful demon Tripurasura, they sought the help of Lord Vishnu. Recognizing the gravity of the situation, Vishnu devised a clever plan to undermine Tripurasura’s strength. He created a new religion designed to lead Tripurasura down a path of evil, weakening his moral and spiritual resolve. Vishnu then called upon Lord Shiva to take on the task of destroying Tripurasura and his formidable cities. In preparation for this monumental battle, Vishnu incarnated as Sugata Buddha, a strategy that is mentioned in the Taittiriya Samhita of the Krishna Yajurveda. The Devas, eager to assist Shiva in his mission, offered their unique contributions: Agni, the Fire God, transformed into the point of an arrow, Chandra, the Moon God, became the arrow’s socket, and Vishnu himself became the shaft. With these divine tools, Shiva was poised to confront Tripurasura.

However, Tripurasura’s strength was bolstered by a boon from Brahma, making him seemingly invincible. Moreover, his devoted wives, who strictly adhered to Pativrata Dharma, constantly prayed for their husband’s long life, further shielding him from harm. Despite Shiva’s formidable power, these divine protections prevented him from successfully vanquishing the demon. Recognizing this obstacle, Vishnu, in his Sugata Buddha avatar, devised a cunning plan to disrupt the unwavering devotion of Tripurasura’s wives. By undermining their spiritual focus, Vishnu aimed to remove the protective barrier surrounding Tripurasura.

Vishnu’s plan hinged on the captivating charm of his Buddha avatar. Embodying an enchanting, youthful, and radiant form, Sugata Buddha meditated naked under a tree, exuding an irresistible aura. One day, as Tripurasura’s wives went to a temple to pray for their husband’s well-being, they encountered this mesmerizing figure. Spellbound by Buddha’s divine beauty and serene presence, they became utterly distracted. Their minds strayed from their prayers and their commitment to Pativrata Dharma waned. This loss of focus weakened the spiritual protection they provided to their husband, paving the way for Shiva to finally destroy Tripurasura. Thus, through a blend of divine intervention and strategic deception, Vishnu and Shiva succeeded in their mission to eliminate the formidable demon.

The Fall of Tripurasura and the Return of Righteousness

A fierce battle raged between Tripurasura and Lord Shiva

Once, the powerful demon trio known as Tripurasura began to falter in their battles. Their downfall started when their wives lost their devotion and adherence to dharma, the moral order that governs the universe. As a result, Tripurasura’s strength waned, making them vulnerable. For three days, a fierce battle raged between Tripurasura and Lord Shiva, the supreme god of destruction and transformation. Seizing the opportunity presented by the weakening of Tripurasura, Lord Shiva prepared for a decisive moment. When the moon was full and the three forts of Tripurasura aligned in a single axis, Lord Shiva struck. With his divine power, he annihilated the demon trio, marking the end of their tyranny.

This significant event brought about the restoration of peace and righteousness on Earth. The killing of Tripurasura was not just a victory for Lord Shiva, but also for Sugata Buddha, regarded as the ninth avatar of Lord Vishnu. Together, they reinstated dharma, bringing balance back to the world. This momentous occasion is celebrated as Tripurari Purnima, a day that commemorates the triumph of good over evil and the re-establishment of moral order. This festival serves as a reminder of the divine intervention that safeguards the universe and upholds righteousness.


Krishna Das is an experienced article writer. He writes about Hinduism in his spare time.

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